تکثیر انواع لیلیوم


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تکثیر در گیاهان یعنی ازدیاد یک رقم خاص طوری که نسل فرزند حاصله مشابه گیاه مادری باشند و استفاده از بذر در گیاهان زینتی امروزی که قریب به اتفاق هیبرید و یا دورگه هستند روشی برای تکثیر یک رقم خاص نمی تواند باشد و چون نسل حاصله از بذر به ندرت مشابه والدین خود می شود ودر هر صورت اختلافاتی از نظر ژنتیکی با والدین خود خواهد داشت .لیلیوم های موجود در بازار ایران همگی هیبرید های درون گونه ای و بین گونه ای در درون جنس لیلیوم هستند و استفاده از بذر برای تکثیر یک رقم خاص امکان پذیر نیست چون فرزندان از نظر ژنتیکی مانند والدین نخواهند بود برای همین در تکثیر و ازدیاد ارقام هیبرید لیلیوم از روش های غیر جنسی استفاده می شود .

روش های تکثیر و ازدیاد لیلیوم های هیبرید عبارتند از :

  1. پیازچه های هوایی
  2. پیازچه های کنار پیاز مادری
  3. پیازچه های موجود در قسمت پایین ساقه گل دهنده (قسمتی که درون خاک قرار دارد وریشه های ساقه از انجا رشد می کنند )
  4. تقسیم پیاز مادری
  5. فلس های پیاز مادری
  6. تولید پیاز جدید از ساقه های زیرزمینی
  7. کشت بافت
  8. کاشت بذر انواع وحشی

در صورتی که لیلیوم مورد نظر هیبرید نباشد و گونه طبیعی محسوب شود می توان ان را از طریق بذر هم تکثیر کرد .

شرح روش های تکثیر :

۱-پیازهای هوایی

برخی از انواع لیلیوم ها می توانند پیازچه های هوایی تولید کنند این پیازهای کوچک در جایی که برگ به ساقه متصل است رشد می کنند و در فصل پاییز و زمستان زمانی که ساقه گل دهنده خشک می شود بر روی زمین افتاده و رشد می کنند .گونه هایی که به طور طبیعی پیازچه های هوایی تولید می کنند کم هستند و Lilium lancifolium یا لیلیوم ببری یکی از انواع است .تحقیقات نشان داده است که استفاده از تنظیم کننده های رشد گیاهی می تواند باعث تولید این پیازچه ها در برخی دیگر از انواع که به طور طبیعی این خصوصیت رو ندارند بشود .در این مورد هورمون NAA استفاده می شود که به صورت اسپری بر روی برگ های بالای ساقه قبل از تولید غنچه های گل انجام می پزیرد .

۲-پیازچه های کنار پیاز مادری

بسیاری از لیلیوم ها این پیازهای کوچک را در قسمت پایین پیاز مادری جایی که ریشه ها رشد می کنند تولید می کنند می توانید انها را در فصل پاییز بعد از خشک شدن ساقه گل دهنده جدا کرده و بکارید

۳-پیازچه های موجود در قسمت پایین ساقه گل دهنده

این پیازچه ها هم مشابه پیازهای مورد قبلی بوده ولی از قسمت پایین ساقه گل دهنده تولید می شوند در صورتی که خاک غنی باشد و شرایط رشد مناسب باشد این پیازچه ها بزرگتر از پیازچه های دیگر قسمت ها می توانند باشند .روش برداشت مشابه مورد قبل می باشد .

۴-تقسیم پیاز مادری

پیازهای لیلیوم ها بسته به گونه و رقم می توانند در یک سال چند پیاز جدید تولید کند که در درون پیاز اصلی می باشند و جدا از پیاز مادری نیستند این پیازها رو می توانید در موقع برداشت جدا کنید و جداگانه بکارید یا اجازه دهید پیاز خود این کار را به طور طبیعی انجام دهد که البته مدت بیشتری طول می کشد تا به قدری بزرگ شود که پیازها به طور طبیعی از هم جدا شوند.

۵-فلس های پیاز مادری

از فلس های جدا شده از پیاز مادری نیز می توانید برای ازدیاد لیلیوم ها استفاده کنید .فلس های جداشده را در درون ماسه نمناک در یک مکان سایه و خنک قرار دهید بعد از چند ماه چند پیازچه کوچک از این فلس ها تولید می شود و بسته به نوع لیلیوم می توانید انها را بکارید.

۶-تولید پیاز جدید از ریزوم یا ساقه زیرزمینی فقط در گونه های وحشی آمریکایی و هیبرید های این گونه ها مشاهده می شود

۷-کشت بافت

مانند اغلب گیاهان مهم دیگر در لیلیوم ها نیز از روش های کشت بافت استفاده زیادی می شود از تولید ارقام جدید بین گونه ای تا تکثیر تجاری ارقام جدید و یا تکثیر گونه های در معرض انقراض .از محیط کشت MS برای کشت بافت انواع لیلیوم استفاده شده است و ریز نمونه های مورد استفاده هم برگ , ساقه , تخمدان , پرچم و فلس های پیاز می باشند .

پیازچه های انواع اورینتال (Oriental ) و مارتاگون (Martagon ) به یک دوره سرمایی یا خواب نیاز دارند تا جوانه بزنند برای این منظور می توانید پیازچه ها را در یخچال (فریزر اصلاً مناسب نیست فقط یخچال) برای مدت تقریباً یک ماه در درون پیت ماس یا پرلیت یا ورمیکولیت مرطوب قرار دهید و سپس اقدام به کاشت نمائید . ارقام آسیاتیک و ترومپت (شیپوری) نیازی به این دوره سرمایی ندارند .

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تکثیر انواع لیلیوم, ۶٫۴ out of 10 based on 8 ratings

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    سلام دوستان خسته نباشید من تعدادی لیلیوم در رنگهای مختلف و در گونه های متفاوت دارم و تعدادی نیز سوسن چلچراغ ، سال گذشته چند تا از لیلیوم ها پیازچه هوایی داد که برای تکثر از آنها استفاده کردم و امسال یکی از سوسن ها در اثر بی احتیاطی من قسمت بالای شاخه کنده شد و بعد از مدت کمی شروع به زدن پیازچه هوایی کرد که اکنون در حال رشد هستند و ریشه هوایی هم زده اند .راه صحیح استفاده از این پیازچه ها چیست ؟ قبلا از همه شما سپاسگزارم – تبریز – حسین جاودانی

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    با سلام
    باید بگم که پیازچه های هوایی با پیازچه های دیگه تفاوتی ندارند ولی باید به انها اجازه بدین تا گیاه سبز است روی بوته بمونن و رشد کنن بعد از رشد کامل و خشک شدن بوته گیاه در پاییز این پیازچه ها رو قطع کنید و در یخچال درون پیت ماس نگهداری کنید و در بهار مثل پیازچه های دیگه بکارید .

    معمولاً قطع شدن گلها قبل از باز شدن اونها باعث افزایش تولید پیازچه های هوایی و پیازچه های زیر خاک میشه و رشد خود پیاز هم بهتر خواهد بود البته اگه قسمت عمده گیاه با برگ هاش تا پاییز سالم بمونند و گیاه رشد طبیعی و تولید مواد غذایی خودش رو تا پاییز ادامه بده و در سال بعد ساقه دوباره رشد میکنه و معمولا ساقه بلند تر و تعداد گل ها بیشتر خواهد بود
    موفق باشید

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