قرنفل


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قرنفل

نام اینگلیسی : Sweet William

نام علمی : Dianthus barbatus

جنس : Dianthus

خانواده : Caryophyllaceae

قرنفل یکی از گونه های جنس میخک ها بومی شرق اروپا و قسمتی هایی از آسیا می باشد و به خاطر زیبایی گلهایش توانسته است که جای خود را به عنوان یک گیاه زینتی باغی و گلدانی پیدا کند .این گیاه یک گیاه علفی دو ساله و یا یک گیاه چند ساله (نه خیلی زیاد) می باشد و می تواند از ۱۰ (در ارقام کوتاه) تا ۷۵ سانتیمتر رشد کند .گلها در خوشه های متراکم تا ۳۰ عدد (یا بیشتر) در انتهای ساقه تولید می شوند اما معمولا ارقام موجود در بازار گلهای کمتری تولید می کنند .اندازه هر گل ۲ الی ۳ سانتیمتر است و گلها دارای ۵ گلبرگ (در ارقام تک پر) دندانه دار در حاشیه ها می باشند.گونه وحشی این گیاه گلهایی با رنگ قرمز و مرکز سفید تولید می کنند ولی رنگ در ارقام هیبرید کنونی بسیار متنوع و جذابتر از گونه وحشی است رنگهایی چون سفید ,  صورتی ,  قرمز ,  بنفش و یا رنگهای مخلوط .منبع نام اینگلیسی این گیاه معلوم نیست اما این نام اولین بار در سال ۱۵۹۶ در یک کاتالوگ باغ متعلق به جان جرارد (John Gerard ) پدیدار شد .گلها خوراکی هستند و شاید دارای مصارف دارویی نیز باشند قرنفل زنبورهای عسل و زنبورهای شهد خوار دیگر مانند پروانه ها و پرنده ها را به طرف خود جلب می کند.

دو واریته اصلی این گونه عبارتند از :

  1. Dianthus barbatus var. barbatus بومی اروپای شرقی دارای برگهای عریض ۲ سانتیمتری
  2. Dianthus barbatus var. asiaticus Nakai بومی شمال شرقی آسیا (چین و کره و جنوب شرقی روسیه) دارای برگهای بلند و باریک که بیش از ۱ سانتیمتر عرض ندارند .

قرنفل یکی از گیاهان زینتی پرطرفدار در باغها می باشد و دارای ارقام زیادی که در رنگهای مختلف پرورش داده شده اند .این گیاه در قرن ۱۶ به اروپای شمالی اورده شد و بعدها با آمریکای شمالی و دیگر نقاط جهان برده شد و به علت قدرت سازگاری زیاد به شرایط زیستی این مناطق خو گرفت.

این گیاه در خاکهای رسی و کمی قلیایی در زیر نور کامل خورشید یا مکان نیمه سایه بخوبی رشد می کند .

تکثیر این گیاه از طریق بذر , قلمه و تقسیم بوته صورت می گیرد اما باید توجه داشته باشید که بذوری که از گیاهان خود بدست می اورید معمولا گیاهانی شبیه به والدین تولید نمی کنند و اگر یک رقم خاص را دوست دارید پس باید از طریق قلمه یا تقسیم بوته تکثیر را انجام دهید در این صورت می توانید رقم مورد علاقه خود را برای مدت طولانی از طریق قلمه تکثیر کنید و همیشه این رقم را داشته باشید .در روش تقسیم بوته نیازی به استفاده از هورمون های ریشه زایی نیست ولی در روش قلمه می توانید از انواع پودری یا ژله ای و مایع استفاده کنید و بعد از فرو بردن قلمه در هورمون قلمه را در بستری با تهویه خوب مانند کوکوپیت و یا بسترهای تجاری دیگر بکارید و ان را در یک مکان خنک و دور از نور خورشید قرار دهید تا ریشه بزند .سعی کنید قلمه ها گل نداشته باشند تا انرژی گیاه صرف رشد گل نشود .

توجه : از کودهای عصاره جلبک دریایی نیز می توانید برای این گیاه به عنوان هورمون ریشه زایی استفاده کنید در این روش کود مایع را طبق دستورالعمل محصول با مقدار ذکر شده اب مخلوط کنید (این کودها به صورت پودری و یا مایع موجود هستند) و سپس قسمت پایین قلمه ها را در این کودها برای چند دقیقه قرار دهید و سپس بکارید .

برای تولید شاخه بیشتر در روی شاخه اصلی گیاه می توانید از کودهای عصاره جلبک به صورت اسپری طبق یک برنامه منظم ماهیانه استفاده کنید تا به این طریق تولید شاخه جانبی برای قلمه برداشتن بیشتر شود .

کاشت بذر :

مستقیم کاشت در باغچه : در اوایل بهار ۱ یا دو هفته بعد از اخرین سرما

به صورت نشاء : ۸ تا ۱۲ هفته قبل از اخرین سرما در منطقه شما

بستر مناسب : بستر های معمولی و یا تجاری .مخلوطی از خاک باغچه و ماسه با کود پوسیده دامی می تواند بستر کشت مناسبی باشد . در صورتی که می خواهید در گلدان این گیاه را بکارید و نگهداری کنید باید سعی کنید که تهویه خاک بهتر باشد و بستر اب را بیش از اندازه در خود نگه ندارد .تا زمان جوانه زنی بذر بستر باید مرطوب باشد (خیس نباشد فقط مرطوب)

 

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